Om kulturell appropriering

Kulturell appropriering innebär att en person anammar särdrag från en annan kultur än den egna, enligt Språktidningen. Eller: cultural appropriation is the unacknowledged or inappropriate adoption of the customs, practices, ideas, etc., of one people or society by members of another, typically more dominant, people or society, enligt Oxford dictionary. Det finns alltså lite olika definitioner, men den senare betonar maktaspekten, som jag tycker är viktig att ha. För utan maktaspekten missar man poängen och fastnar i diskussioner om kulturellt utbyte mellan förment jämlika människor. 

För att förstå kulturell appropriering måste en kunna sin historia. Sin koloniala historia. Vi är svenskar (och nu vänder jag mig till icke rasifierade personer som är födda och uppväxta i Sverige. Eller annan före detta kolonialmakt), och vi är födda med ett välstånd och med möjligheter som till exempel ganska få indier är födda med. Vi är privilegierade. 

Problemet är att vårt svenska/västerländska välstånd är direkt relaterat till den brist på välstånd som finns i andra delar av världen. De forna kolonialstaterna roffade åt sig friskt och lämnade sedan länder vars ekonomier fortfarande till stor del är beroende av produktion och export av råvaror, utan förädlingsvärdet. Förädlingsvärdet hamnar istället i väst. För att ta ett enkelt exempel: kaffe. Kaffe odlas i forna kolonier, där kolonialstaterna anlade kaffeplantager (som nu är väldigt svårt och kostsamt att omvandla till plantager av grödor som kan fungera som mat åt befolkningen), vi importerar hela bönor till lilla Sverige. Väl här så rostas bönorna, mals till kaffe, paketeras och levereras till mataffären där du kan köpa ditt paket. Du kanske väljer en viss sort, till viss del baserat på den marknadsföring just det kaffemärket har gjort. Av kostnaden för ett paket kaffe utgör själva bönorna en rätt liten del. Den del som tillkommer kaffebonden är försvinnande liten. Värdeökningen för kaffebönor sker genom paketering, design, marknadsföring, etc. och allt detta kommer Sveriges ekonomi till godo. Inte ekonomin i det land som odlade bönorna. Vår livsstil är beroende av att det finns människor i andra delar av världen som jobbar häcken av sig för nästan inga pengar alls, så att vi kan importera alla grödor vi vill ha, köpa dem, och samtidigt ha råd att åka på semester. Det är samma sak med andra råvaror, som metallerna till våra mobiltelefoner eller ädelstenarna till våra själfulla malas. De produceras billigt på en plats och förädlas till värdefulla varor på en annan plats. Och det här är bara en av kolonialismens många negativa verkningar för de forna kolonierna.

Så vi har under lång tid exploaterat andra människor för deras råvaror och deras arbete och nu vill vi också exploatera deras kulturella uttryck. Inte så fräscht va?

Vi befinner oss alltså, hur vi än gör, i en maktrelation med invånare i världens fattiga länder. Det kommer alltid att finnas sköna dudes som tycker att vi är alla en och alla människor är lika mycket värda och jag har minsann fina, sanna vänskapsrelationer med lokalbefolkningen i det land jag väljer att ha min billiga semester i. Och visst, i teorin har de rätt, och på ett filosofiskt plan är vi alla stjärnstoft, men vi lever inte i en filosofisk verklighet, vi lever i en verklighet där vi måste äta varje dag, ha kläder på oss och hitta ett sätt att försörja oss som inte inverkar alltför negativt på vår hälsa. Det är mycket lättare att göra det om du lever i Sverige än om du lever i Pakistan. 

Här är ett bra tankeexperiment: om jag åker på semester till ett land, kan människor från det landet åka på semester till mitt land? Har de råd? Kan de få visum? Skulle de bli stoppade vid gränsen och satta i förvar? Om inte så finns det en ojämlikhet som gör att alla relationer du har med människor i det landet delvis är maktrelationer.

Och i ljuset av det blir det lite konstigt när man inte tar anklagelser om kulturell appropriering på allvar. Om någon som kommer från en minoritetskultur anser att något du gör är kulturell appropriering, vad har du för rätt att säga att det inte alls är det?

Så är utövandet av yoga kulturell appropriering? Inte nödvändigtvis. Mest för att den yoga vi utövar idag i väst inte är så indisk som den verkar (som vi vill göra den, skulle man också kunna säga, vilket är en form av exotifiering). Yoga är heller inget som har tillhört en tydligt avgränsad grupp utan har praktiserats av olika grupper på olika sätt under mycket lång tid. Liksom, vilket element är det vi stjäl från de ursprungliga utövarna? Meditation? Finns i massor av kulturer. Medvetenhet? Kom igen. Anding? Hmm. Solhälsningen? Läs om solhälsningens historia i Singletons fantastiska bok Yoga Body: The origins of modern posture practice. Att däremot jobba med texter och mantran på sanskrit, eller att jobba med övningar, som pranayama, från en specifik skola utan att ge cred till den, eller förklara bakgrunden, kan vara kulturell appropriering. Att ta symboler från en hinduisk eller buddhistisk religion, tömma dem på innehåll och placera dem i en yogastudio (eller på ett badlakan, väska, whatever) där de får representera en idé om en yogisk kultur så som vi tolkar den, det är problematiskt. 

Och det blir inte mer rätt för att det är indier som säljer ditt badlakan med Ganesha på. De kanske inte hade gjort det om de hade haft samma möjligheter som svensken till att förverkliga sig själv genom sitt yrkesliv.

Flow time!

I love to move into Adho Mukha Svanasana from squat pose! It helps me take the weight from my arms and shoulders and into my legs. Moving into starfish (or whatever variation, both knees bent may be easier) by taking the leg underneath you is actually quite accessible. Shift weight between the sitting bones and rotate the hip joint in and out in Upavistha Konasana for increased hip mobility. I also like the reverse cobras, starting to lift from the middle of the back instead of from the upper back. The key is to pull your rib cage towards your hips while engaging around the navel and creating a wave through the back. And of course, starting out with an arm circle is a must before putting weight on your hands. Try it out and have fun!

Walking on the long and winding road to a pain free back

So what can you do to make your back pain free, to really get that feeling of having a spine as strong and viable as a tree’s trunk? First thing: get to know your pain! I mean really. Get to know it. I like to think of pain as an old relative that you wouldn’t say you like, because she’s nagging and complaining way to much, but still, she’s a relative and you need to make sure she’s all right. Most importantly, you would never do anything to hurt her. It’s the same with your pain, you may think angry thoughts about it, but it’s still a part of your body and your body deserve nothing but your unreserved love, no matter how deficient it is and how bad it works and how much it hurts. Especially than, when it hurts and doesn’t work the way you want I to. 

In practice: Keep a pain journal. Take notice of when you feel pain and how bad it is. For instance you can do it three times a day, when you wake up, somewhere in the middle and before you go to sleep. This will allow you to recognise any patterns that your pain follows. 

The importance of movement for the back cannot be pointed out enough. While it is beyond doubt good to walk, bicycle, run, swim or whatever you like to do, you can also try to move through conscious, slow yoga flows with focus on the somatic experience of being in the body. The reason why mind-body techniques such as yoga works so well for treating back pain is because they include both body and mind, and back pain is a body and mind issue. 

What I believe has been most valuable for me was a new approach to yoga. I did a teacher training with Julie Martin, who applies a rather rebellious approach to yoga. She works with freedom in movement and moves away from the old understanding of what constitutes a yoga position, or asana. Instead of being based on static strength like traditional yoga, it’s soft, fluid, dynamic. By moving ni this way, I have reached a whole new range of motion in my spine and in my hip joints. I work my hips a lot, because – surprise! – it’s all connected. The spine is part of the pelvis so naturally the pelvis affect the spine. I also work my feet, or rather try to keep them healthy by not (not anymore) squeezing them into shoes that are too small. 

Building stability and strength, especially if you have a tendency of hyper mobility (that is, if your joints can easily move beyond a normal range of motion), can rally help easing back pain. One of my favourite things to do when I start to feel that pinch in my lower back is to go to the gym and do dead lifts. Check out this guide if you want to learn how to do deadlifts! http://www.styrkelabbet.se/marklyft/ (in Swedish.)

There is also a lot to say about posture. Having a ”bad” posture is not connected to having back pain. This seems a bit counter intuitive but as you may have noticed a lot of people walk around life slouching like question marks without ever having any trouble with their backs. However, just because there is no correlation between posture and back pain does not mean that posture is irrelevant in treating back pain. Having a good posture, which I define as finding support for the spine from the feet, legs, and pelvis, takes focus away from the back. Imagine never having to think about where you place your spine, no more arching and no more rounding to find ease, the back can just be there without you thinking about it. 

A good posture should be one that offers support and stability for the spine to be in its natural curve. 

Last but not least something needs to be said about the illiopsoas. The psoas muscle has been called ”the muscle of the soul” (by Liz Koch of http://coreawareness.com). I really don’t want to go into the discussion about the validity of this claim, but limit myself to saying that the psoas is important as it connects the upper body to the lower body, stabilises the back and life the legs. It is one of the deepest muscles of the body and it originates along the spine and joins to the thigh bone. Typically most people would benefit from strengthening the psoas, more so then to stretch it. typically, what most people do is stretching it…
This is the illiopsoas:

An easy exercise: stand tall, arms alongside the body and lift and bend one leg so that you draw your knee towards your chest. Stay for a minute or so and make little circles with your knee, while allowing the pelvis to move with the circles. Do the other leg. Repeat. 

And of course, I’m announcing a workshop on back pain to the held at May 20. Please join me for a possibly life changing event! (Check out separate post!)

Is it gonna hurt? Fear of pain and fear of movement

Pain and fear of feeling pain can interfuse so that sometimes it’s hard to distinguish the two. It’s the fear of pain that makes us grip to protect the part that hurts, to try to keep everything still, or at least within a restricted pain free range of motion. It’s like we want to build an imaginary fortress around the painful area, mobilise our own tissue to shield and protect. The mere thought of how it would hurt to make an uncontrolled movement is frightening and sends chills of discomfort down the spine. After a while this fear may lead to an altered pattern of movement. You learn to move around the pain and never have to go directly into it. Thinking that if you only keep everything absolutely still it will heal. This is useful when it comes to a broken arm, but not so much when it comes to back pain.

I was told, by one of the numerous physiotherapists I have seen, that I had unstable shoulder blades and lack of strength in my upper back. The way I interpreted that information was that I had to keep everything stable and in place in order to avoid pain in my neck and shoulders. And so I gripped. I tried to move my arms without moving the shoulder blades, which is definitely not useful because the shoulder blades will have to move when the arms elevate above shoulder height. That, I have come to realise, was a non-constructive fear of movement. I have had it with my lower back as well, trying to keep everything stable and move slowly and carefully to avoid visiting that painful range of motion. 

Fear of pain, leading to fear of movement. There is even a term for it: kinesiophobia: an excessive, irrational and deliberating fear of physical movement activity.

Often what happens when we go to see a specialist, a physician or physiotherapist, is we get a diagnosis or some sort of explanation as to why we’re having pain. We may even be told to be careful, avoid heavy lifting or uncontrolled movements. Peter O’Sullivan, the radical physiotherapist, holds the view that health professionals should try to give patients a different view on the pain. Instead of talking about the back pain as being caused by structural damage, wear and tear, bulging discs, etc., the message should be that those things are normal and that there is no need to worry about them. Instead treatment should be focused on giving pain patients ways to know their pain better and ways to move out of their pain cycle. The back should be trusted to move in its normal way, according to Peter O’Sullivan.

I like to think of the spine as the trunk of a tree. Tremendously strong, stable and yet flexible.

Pain may create a sense of vulnerability. Your body is a piece of the world that is yours and yours only. Its home to your mind, your consciousness and perhaps even your soul and it is supposed to be a safe home. Your body is also the entity through which you interact with the rest of the world, you move around, walk, talk and dress. You express yourself through your body. No wonder we may experience some desperation when the body is not working properly. Having a painful body truly puts the entire world at bay. As a counter mechanism we try to move in such away that allows us to avoid pain. As long as we manage to live our lives around the pain we can keep the illusion that we have a well functioning body that does not hurt, and this restores a sense of security. However, it does not work in the long run. Instead of moving around the pain, we can try to move right into it, accept it and take care of it. the way we would take care of an old relative whose company we may not really like but who still deserves our love and care. This takes courage. And it takes guidance. A good yoga teacher is one that you can trust never to take your body to places that can be harmful. She will encourage you to enhance your range of motion slowly and to increase your knowledge about your pain so that you can handle it consciously and eventually become pain free. 

Pain is just in your head, or? The multiple reasons behind back pain

I believe that we, as humans, have a tendency to always look for the one single cause for every problem we encounter. Often though, and especially when it comes to back pain, there is not one single cause but more like an ocean of causes that contribute to the problem to varying extents. Back pain is one of the most puzzling conditions, and it is still being researched. What we do know is that back pain is complex and cannot be deduced to one distinguishable condition. Some interesting facts are that:

  • Only about 1% of all back pain occurrences have a really serious cause, such as a fracture.
  • 90% of all people would have degenerated discs detectable in a MRI scan.
  • 50% of the general population think pain means that the back is damaged. 

Back pain is not only connected to physical issues but also to psychological and emotional. 

So, most back pain doesn’t signify a serious injury, and injuries are common and usually not dangerous but still we tend to think that that it is precisely the opposite. 

Your prospects of becoming pain free are affected by how you perceive pain. 

The last time I experienced back pain I was working at a place I didn’t like, for a number of reasons. One reason was that I had to commute for one hour and forty-five minutes by train only to get there. This was at the same time as public health minister of Sweden declared sitting down to be the new smoking, i.e. really, really harmful and to be avoided at all cost. I had to sit for one hour and forty-five minutes and I hated it, I literally felt how my body degenerated during those commuting hours. And of course it was devastating for my back. From being located to the right side of the spine in the lower back the pain started to spread, affecting my upper back and my shoulders as well. Everything got so unpleasant I could barely sustain myself. Then on the weekends I usually took the train in the other direction to go for a hike in beautiful mother nature. Two hour train rides was not uncommon (oh lord, won’t you buy me a Mercedes benz?) and did I ever experience pain during those hours of sitting down? Well, I did, but it was much, much less, it was bearable and it didn’t affect my mood like it did when I travelled to work.

Peter O’Sullivan is a physiotherapist engaged in the field of back pain. He highlights the complexity of lower back pain and criticises traditional clinicians for still considering back pain to be directly related to structural damage, even though research prove, time after time, that damage doesn’t necessarily equate pain. Structural damage in the back may lead to pain, but a back with no structural damage may hurt as well. So even if its possible to detect one or a few causes for pain it’s not really interesting to do so, but instead to look at what we can do to feel better. Highlighting the psychological and emotional causes for pain does not mean that structural or physical aspects are completely irrelevant, however. For instance, while most people with bad posture will never experience pain, bad posture may for other people be one among several causes for pain. That is, a bad posture won’t automatically lead to pain, but if you have pain, working with your posture may be a relief. 

An important concept in regard to the complexity of pain is the pain cycle. Just as it sounds, the pain cycle describes how pain or injury leads to behavioural changes, which in turn leads to reinforced pain or prevents healing. A perfectly normal reaction to pain is avoidance: the body moves to avoid pain, if moving normally hurts more then it does to move in a distorted way, then your movements will be distorted. The body starts to compensate so that over time muscles, ligaments and nerves adjust to a new movement pattern that makes some muscles weaker and other muscles more tense. This in turn leads to sustained or aggravated pain. Another version of the pain cycle concerns the emotional aspects of pain so that pain leads to various forms of emotional suffering, which in turn leads to the experience of pain being intensified. 

This is where fear comes into play. Increased levels of fear of pain correlates with increased pain. Reducing fear can also reduce the pain experienced. Honestly, it can even be that the fear is worse than the actual pain, because fear happens at so many levels. It is the physical level of ”whats happening to my body, am I ever going to move in an unrestricted way again?”-feeling, it is the emotional feeling sorry for yourself or just feeling worthless, a sense of there being something wrong that feels deeper and more profound than just an aching body part. In the upcoming post I continue to dig into the topic of fear in relation to pain.